Book Reviews: Thankful for the Comments on My First Book

Prof. Johan Lust has kindly reviewed my first book Mapping Judah’s Fate in Ezekiel’s Oracles against the Nations. The review is published at Ephemerides theologicae Lovanienses 93 (2017): 152-153. For your reading convenience, here are the photographed pages:



Prof. Karin Schöpflin has also kindly written a review of my book, which is published at Zeitschrift für die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 129 (2017): 465-466. Here is the photographed review:


My sincere thanks for their kind attention and helpful comments 🙂

Article: The Enemies Within: Gog of Magog in Ezekiel 38-39

My article entitled “The Enemies Within: Gog of Magog in Ezekiel 38-39” is now published in the open-access journal HTS Teologiese Studies/Theological Studies (South Africa-based)! Please feel free to check it out on their website:

This article summarizes and builds on a section of my 2016 monograph entitled Mapping Judah’s Fate in Ezekiel’s Oracles the against Nations. Since not all of you may have the time to read through the entire book, this article can help you quickly grasp some of the most interesting arguments about the Gog oracles in Ezekiel 38-39. Moreover, this article will lead you through further samples of the reception of Gog of Magog that are not found in the monograph.

Here is the abstract of the article:

The most extensive descriptions of Gog and Magog in the Hebrew Bible appear in Ezekiel 38–39. At various stages of their political career, both Reagan and Bush have linked Gog and Magog to the bêtes noires of the USA, identifying them either as the ‘communistic and atheistic’ Russia or the ‘evil’ Iraq. Biblical scholars, however, seek to contextualise Gog of Magog in the historical literary setting of the ancient Israelites. Galambush identifies Gog in Ezekiel as a cipher for Nebuchadnezzar, the Babylonian king, who acted as Judah’s oppressor in the 6th century BCE. More recently, Klein concludes that Gog, along with his companions, is ‘eine Personifikation aller Feinde, die Israel im Buch Ezechiel gegenüberstehen’. Despite their differences in detail, these scholars, such as Reagan and Bush, work with a dualism that considers only the features of Judah’s enemies incorporated into Gog’s characteristics. Via an analysis of the semantic allusions, literary position and early receptions of Ezekiel 38–39, this article argues that Gog and his entourage primarily display literary attributes previously assigned to Judah’s political allies.

Enjoy your reading! 🙂

P/S: FREE download of Mapping Judah’s Fate in Ezekiel’s Oracles against the Nations is available here: Further publications by me can be viewed and downloaded here:;



Lecture: How Many Books of Esther Do We Have?

My friend Szi-chieh Yu helpfully introduced me to this wonderful website called the Bible Project. It contains many beautiful animated videos that render biblical stories accessible to everyone, everywhere. The animations are simply lovely! I notice that it defines and explains the Bible from a Protestant Christian perspective. It stresses a unifying principle underlying the Protestant Bible. As one of the videos points out, it is helpful to bear in mind that today the Bible the Protestants are using is not exactly the same as the Eastern Orthodox Christians and the Catholic Christians. The Protestants are using the Jewish Tanakh as their Old Testament (with a different structural arrangement). The Jews and the Protestants, however, can interpret the scriptural texts rather differently.

The Project’s video entitled “What Is the Bible?” also highlights that the Protestant Bible has undergone a long process of compilation. Biblical scholars have continued encountering historical artefacts (e.g., Dead Sea Scrolls, Cairo Genizah, Nag Hammadi Library, etc.) and internal literary evidence (e.g., stylistic breaks, doublets, thematic tensions, etc.) that point to the fluidity and diversity of the early scriptural traditions.

If you wish to know how diverse the early literary traditions surrounding the story of Esther (one of the stories found in the Protestant Bible today) were, why don’t you pop by for the Ancient History Public Lecture tomorrow evening (19:00-20:00)? In the lecture, we will also explore how the early Jewish and Christian writers grappled with the textual fluidity and diversity. See you there! 🙂



Resource: Living Biblical Hebrew in South Africa!

The faculty of theology at the North-West University (Potchefstroom Campus) has many nice and creative teachers. Liza Lemmer is one of them! I bumped into her at the beginning of the semester and she has kindly let me audit her class. It is a lot of fun to observe how she uses the “Living Biblical Languages” method to teach first-year students Hebrew! For an overview of the “Living Biblical Languages” method, you can look at this video produced by the Biblical Language Center here:


I first came into the class on the third day of Week 1, and the students could already follow basic commands of the teacher:


We also learned the Hebrew words for different body parts through a song 🙂


Once we even had our class outdoors! Guess what! The teacher told me that I already know a lot of Hebrew, so I got to be the camerawoman of the following outdoor recording 😉


Today, the teacher and her assistants acted out the funny story of two men – יואב ואדו – which gave us a real belly laugh 😀


As seen from above, the teaching techniques used by Liza are really diverse and there are a lot of interactions between teachers and students. I really enjoy going to the class. For the other videos of this Beginner’s Hebrew course, feel free to click on the SEMT112 playlist.

Sincerely hope that one day I can teach Hebrew creatively like her 😉

Announcement: A Job Seeker

After the defense, I will also be officially unemployed (graduation = unemployment?)

Therefore, if you are a potential employer or you know of any temporary research or teaching opportunities, please don’t hesitate to contact me at (I know this email address sounds a bit funny, but this is the mailbox I check most often ;p)

For your deliberation, I will tell you a bit about myself. And you can also ask me for my CV and other relevant documents. My bachelor, honours and PhD are all related to the Bible (Old Testament/Hebrew Bible) and its related languages (mainly Semitic languages – e.g. Hebrew, Aramaic, Akkadian). I am interested in any jobs related to the Bible.


Of course, my dream or goal is to go back to Asia with my fiance, to teach and live there. But, right now, I think I still need to accumulate some work experience for another four or five years in other parts of the world.


For a teaching position, I am willing to teach anywhere for a limited time span. So you can count me in if you know of any job from the North Pole to Antarctica.

For a research position, I hope to gain access to great library facility.

And the good news is that I don’t have any salary requirements. But I do at least expect my travel  expenses and accommodation to be covered if there is no salary. If I get a salary, then I can take care of the travelling and the accommodation by myself.

Personal Information:

I am engaged to a boy. But I also love what I have been studying. And I want to have my own career in the future. My fiance is sweet enough to be totally supportive of it. So I will be a reliable employee for you.

That’s all from me for now. Again, if you are a potential employer, please feel free to email me ( I can provide you with other relevant information about my qualifications. You can also check out my other blog articles to get to know me a bit more. Thank you very much for your kind attention.

A photo from last world cup? Taken from

A photo from the previous world cup? Taken from

Right now, it is the World Cup fever. May we all acheive our goals and dreams in life 😉

Presentation: Fiery “Sheol” in the Dead Sea Scrolls

When I throw this question at my boyfriend, who is a law student and thus a “non-specilaist” of the Bible: “How does the underworld look?” The first word comes out of his mouth is “fire”! When I am in the Vatican, looking at the fresco of the Last Judgment by Michelangelo, at the right hand corner, at the bottom, I see that the boatman Charon shove the damned souls into the fiery hole. When I read John Milton’s Paradise Lost, I imagine Satan falling into the “bottomless perdition” filled with “penal fire”. When I go to church on Sunday, I listen to the Lukan story of the rich man and Lazarus, where the former thirsts for water in the eternal flame.  Here comes one interesting fact: If we try to find a reference to fire in the “Sheol” (a uniquely Hebraic term to designate the abode of the dead) of the Hebrew Bible, we would be disappointed. Instead of with fire, the Hebrew Bible often associates “Sheol” with water (e.g. Job 26:5-6; Ezekiel 31:15; Psalm 69:2, 14). Where are all these images of fiery underworld coming from? I do not know the answer.

But tomorrow in one of the sessions of the SBL international meeting at St. Andrews, I would like to share with you how several Qumran texts (e.g. 1QM XIV, 16-18; 4Q 491 8-10i 13b-15; 1QHa IV 25-26a; 4Q184 1 6-10) attest to a fiery underworld, expressed through the term “Sheol”! First, I would like to draw your attention to how this fiery “Sheol” stands in contrast to the more watery “Sheol” in the Hebrew Bible. Second, I relate this fiery “Sheol” in the Qumran texts with the other fiery underworld in the Second Temple literature, esp. that of 1 Enoch. Rather than probing the origin of this fiery imagery, the focus will be on the literary function of this fiery imagery within the Qumran texts. At the end, I conclude that this fiery aspect of “Sheol” within the Qumran texts contributes to an annihilating concept of punishment after death in the Second Temple period. (Note: In case you are wondering how I get into this “deadly” business, it is because we also get the prevalent motif of death and Sheol in Ezekiel’s oracles against Egypt, which form the focus of chapter 3 of my dissertation)

So I send you my greetings from St. Andrews and look forward to seeing you and discussing with you here! 🙂

Here are the details of the session:

Qumran and the Dead Sea Scrolls
9:00 AM to 12:00 PM
Room: Meeting Room 301 – Physics (15)Sidnie Crawford, University of Nebraska – Lincoln, Presiding
Helen R. Jacobus, University College London
Calendars from Jewish Documents in the Cave of Letters and Elsewhere in the Judean Desert (25 min)
Discussion (10 min)
David Willgren, Lund University
Psalm Use in the Dead Sea Scrolls (25 min)
Discussion (10 min)

Break (35 min)
Lydia Lee, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
“Sheol” in the Dead Sea Scrolls (25 min)
Discussion (10 min)


Scottish pipe music in the university of St. Andrews to mark the end of the conference 🙂

Presentation: My Last Doctoral Colloquium

As promised in the previous post, I’m going to perform an experiment, sharing one brief overview of a 30 mins long paper entitled The Perfect Beauty of Tyre in Ezekiel 27: Anti-Jerusalem Temple Rhetoric. I presented this paper on 03.05.2013 for the DoKo (Doktorandenkolloquium) at the faculty of my university~ This post is also a way to summarize and commemorate my second and last DoKo presentation over the past three years! 🙂


In the whole book of Ezekiel, the combination of the terms כלל “to perfect, be complete” and יֹפה “to be beautiful” appears only in one oracle concerning Jerusalem and the Tyre oracles (27:3, 4, 11; cf. 28:12). Elsewhere in the whole of the Hebrew Bible, it appears only in relation to Jerusalem (Psalm 50:2, Lamentations 2:15; Ezekiel 16:14). This then raises an intriguing question concerning the comparability between Tyre and Jerusalem within this particular prophetic book.


I thus set out on a journey to discover the link of the Tyrian ship in Ezekiel 27 to Jerusalem in chapter 16 as well as in other passages in the Hebrew Bible. What surprises me is that the first section of Ezekiel 27 (vv.5-9) contains words that are used elsewhere in the Hebrew Bible mostly or only in reference to the sanctuary building contexts (E.g. the parallel of ברושׁים “cypress” and  ארז “cedar” in v.5, the קרשׁ “plank” in v.6, the ארגמן “purple” and תכלת “blue” in v.7, the חכמים “wise men” in vv.8-9; שׁשׁ “fine linen” and רקמה “embroidered cloth” in vv.7, 16, 24). The same can be said in regard to chapter 16, which narrates the abominable history of lady Jerusalem, but uses language at vv.9-14 that is comparable to the tabernacle building in the wilderness (language found mainly in P sources e.g. Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers). Such distinctive linguistic connections thus point me to the direction that the perfect beauty of Tyre in Ezekiel 27 is comparable at a synchronic level to the temple beauty of Jerusalem typified especially in Ezekiel 16.

Of special significance is the rhetorical impact of such linguistic connections might have in reading the glory and subsequent destruction of Tyre in the beautiful lament of Ezekiel 27. I therefore come up with 3 observations on how to evaluate such perfect beauty of Tyre in light of the shared language:

1. Following the lead of Greenberg who suggests the close connections of the perfect beauty among Ezekiel 27:3-4, 11; 16:14; Psalm 50:2; Lamentations 2:15, I further propose that the contexts of judgment in all four passages are one significant commonality.

2. The extensive trade list in the middle of the lament (27:12-25) has the literary effect of exalting the perfect beauty of Tyre to an unprecedented scope. That Jerusalem and the land of Israel are subsumed under the trade list (v. 17) creates further an effect that the manifestations of the temple beauty of Jerusalem is relativized through the pompous glory of Tyre.

3. The ultimate horrid destruction of Tyre by the east wind (vv.25b-36) is not comparable lingustically with the destruction of Jerusalem. Yet, taking the linguistic connections to Jerusalem temple imagery mentioned in the foregoing, and contextualizing the temple imagery within the book of Ezekiel, the negative and indifferent attitude toward Jerusalem temple is evident throughout various redactional layers of the prophetic book (e.g. the presence of Yahweh with the exile in Ezekiel 1; 11:14-16; the departure of Yahweh’s glory from Jerusalem in Ezekiel 8-11; the absence of the designation of Jerusalem/Zion in Ezekiel 40-48, etc.)

Given that Ezekiel 27 is sandwiched between Ezekiel 26:1 (with a chronological formula that alerts to the simultaneous siege of Jerusalem and Tyre by Nebuchadnezzar) and the climactic fall of Jerusalem envisioned in Ezekiel 33:21ff., it is only natural that the destruction of the Tyrian ship in Ezekiel 27 highlights the suspense of the fall of Jerusalem temple. It ascertains the doom of the First Temple and contains the anti-Jerusalem temple rhetoric: If Tyre with all her manifested glory cannot withstand the destruction of Yahweh, how much more can a small sanctuary like the Jerusalem Temple do!?


To conclude, I see an alignment between Tyre and Jerusalem in Ezekiel 27 that cannot be brushed aside too easily. Of course, the alignment is not the whole story of the oracles concerning the foreign nations in Ezekiel 25-32. Anyway, this brief overview is a summary of only a part of the chapter 2 of my dissertation. But before you claim such harsh and deconstructive message concerning Jerusalem temple as blasphemous, I’d like to leave you with the following thought from this small oracle concerning Tyre: The alignment between us and the others (or self-internalization) is probably the best first step to point us to the real difference between us and the others. Looking at what is being destroyed through a comparison with Tyre, we can then have a better understanding of what exactly is preserved for the relationship between Yahweh and the house of Israel to continue in Ezekiel.

Afterthoughts from my DoKo presentation:

Here I can be less technical to talk about this DoKo experience! 🙂

1. Not all professors were at my DoKo presentation. But the one who saw me present at OTSEM 2011 in Copenhagen (when I was still too simple and too naive in the academic field) was at this DoKo as well! He was kind enough to say that I’ve grown to a certain extent that I could defend my paper convincingly and said that it was an excellent paper! (Let me sincerely hope that he really meant what he said)

2. Really grateful to have a really awesome, lovely, supportive, encouraging respondent at my DoKo presentation! Can’t thank her enough to make me feel really comfortable and confident during the presentation of my paper (actually I was lucky enough to have really good respondents at both times of my DoKo presentations who gave super constructive criticisms and feedback to my paper!)

3. Got really useful comments, criticisms, encouragements and one big HUG during and after the discussion time!! They were kind enough to offer some compliments but also good enough to point out that I will still need to think more about my methodology of comparison: How to incorporate a diachronic approach to texts in a synchronic study? I do have some thoughts upon reading the books from Tooman and Levitt Kohn. Mmm… do you have any thoughts on this issue? If yes, please feel free to leave a comment at the bottom of this post or just email me ( I’d love to discuss this paper with you and look forward to your sharing of thoughts!


Phoenician ships transporting cedar logs depicted in a relief of one Assyrian palace